Birding in Kenya
|Guineafowl in a Kenya Park|
Kenya has a vast variety of species, over 1000, in a vast variety of habitats. From montane forest to tropical coast, in every conceivable altitude range: deserts, open savannah grassland, lowland forest, bush and scrub, lakes and mudflats.
This huge variety of birds is made possible by the lack of climatic extremes. Kenya straddles the equator and has no 'summer' or 'winter' as suchonly wet and dry seasons. In the northern latitudes huge numbers of birds migrate south to avoid the harsh oncoming winters. From as far east as the Bering Straits and as far west as the northern tip of Norwaythey come in their millions to East Africa. It has been estimated, give or take a few million, that as many as 6,000 million birds make the journey each year. Combine the migratory birds to the incredible variety of local birds, and you have an ornithological paradise.
All our national parks and reserves have their own quota of this grand variety and with a few exceptions, each one of them covers a different type of habitat. There are of course overlapping areas which need to be taken into account when planning a bird safari. However, even on a more standard wildlife safari, taking in all or some of the major game viewing areas, the birds provide a superb added attraction to those who are interested.
Of great importance to those planning bird safaris is that birds can be found in abundance outside the national parks. There are many areas of Kenya covering the same wide variation of habitat, that do not have national park status. In these places game may be scarcebut birds are always present. Examples are Lake Magadi, only 110 kms south of Nairobi in Rift Valley, Kakamega Forest in Western Kenya, a remnant of the great rain forest that once covered much of East Africa; Lake Naivasha, 90 kms north of Nairobi; and the thousands of hectares of farmland, private ranches and even suburban gardens in Nairobi. All these areas are prolific in birdlife.
In photographing birds, they have in many cases become used to cars, and on the lakes used to boats; they seem not to associate these things with people, and can be approached much closer than would be possible on foot. The use of hides, on very specialised safaris, can be arranged, and it would be unusual not to be able to photograph many species by this method.
Between 300 ~ 400 species can easily be seen on a well planned safari and sometimes as many as 500, provided the basic rules are observed, the most important being time! A rushed safari, trying to cover as many places as possible in the least amount of time, will result in less birds, not more.
A number of Field Guides and hand books on birds are readily available in Nairobi. The most commonly used being The Field Guide to the Birds of East Africa by John G Williams. This book is available in English and German.
The following summary indicates which parks or reserves fall into which major habitats as well as naming some of the principal birds which can be found in them. The intention being to give the bird watcher on a primarily wildlife safari some idea as to what may be seen.
The Aberdares National Park and Mount Kenya National Park
Highland forest and Afro-alpine moorland
A visit to either The Aberdares National Park or Mount Kenya National Park provides opportunities for bird watching in three distinctive vegetational zones. These are thick highland forest, bamboo forest and Afro-alpine moorland. Highland species found here include several extremely uncommon birds. Green ibis, rufous sparrow hawk, mountain buzzard, crowned eagle, Jackson's francolin, bronze-raped pigeon, red-fronted parrot, Hartlaub's turaco, scarce swift, white-headed wood hoopoe, silvery-checked hornbill, moustached green tinkerbird, fine banded woodpecker, montane oriole, alpine chat, abyssinian ground thrush, Sharpe's longclaw, slender-billed chestnut-winged starling and no less than 13 species of sunbirds; including the northern double-collared, golden-winged, tacazze, green-headed, variable and scarlet-tufted malachite.
Samburu, Meru, and Tsavo
Samburu National Reserve, Meru National Park, and Tsavo National Park are predominately areas of acacia bush, interspersed with more open pockets of seasonal bushed grasslands. All three parks have large rivers running through them and the stands of tall acacias along the banks attract many species. Notable birds to look for in these areas include: ostrich, vultures, African hawk eagle, pale-chanting goshawk, martial eagle, vulturine guineafowl, buff-crested bustard, chestnut-bellied and black-faced sandgrouse, white-bellied go-away bird, green wood hoopoe, yellow-bellied eremomela, pygmy basis, rosy-patched shrike, Taita fiscal, golden-breasted starling, eastern violet-backed pytilia, as well as a wide variety of starlings, weavers, and waxbills.
This is a vast area of rolling grasslands with scattered pockets of acacia woodland. Interesting species include: secretary bird, numerous vultures, eagles and hawks, wattled plover, yellow-throated sand-grouse, bare-faced go-away bird, gabon nightjar, lilac-breasted roller, ground hornbill, red-throated tit, sooty chat, and a wide variety of larks, pipits, and widowbirds. In the thick riverine forest bordering the Mara and Talek rivers, several notable birds are found: African finfoot, Livingstone's turaco, Ross's turaco, giant and woodland kingfishers, blue flycatcher, double-toothed barbet and occasionally the rare Pel's fishing owl.
Freshwater and alkaline lakes
Four of the lakes in the southern part of Kenya's Rift Valley are strongly alkaline, of these, Lakes Bogoria and Nakuru are frequently the gathering and feeding grounds for huge numbers of lesser flamingo. Over one million are often present and exceptionally two million may occur. Greater flamingo are also found, although in far smaller numbers. The freshwater rivers entering Lake Nakuru attract many other water birds, however generally speaking there is not the diversity of species on the soda lakes as are found on the freshwater lakesBaringo and Naivasha. Over 400 species have been recorded at each of these lakes and hardly anyone would fail to be impressed by the number of species which can be seen in just a couple of days at either lake. White pelican, pink-backed pelican, cormorant, long tailed cormorant, little bittern, goliath heron, purple heron, squacco heron, little, yellow-billed and great white egrets, hammerkop, yellow-billed stork, sacred ibis, African spoonbill, fish eagle, black crake, Aller's and purple gallinules, jacana and pied and malachite kingfishers are all resident. In addition, large numbers of migrant waders and ducks may be seen during the northern winter.
The following areas are not normally included in wildlife safaris, but are important habitats for a large number of interesting bird species. These places could he included in a specially constructed bird-watching safari.
Sokoke Forest, Gede Forest
The only areas of true lowland forest in Kenya, the Sokoke-Gede forests are the habitat of some very localised birds, including: cuckoo hawk, Kenya crested guineafowl, Fischer's turaco, Sokoke scops owl, green barbet, red-tailed ant thrush, east coast akalat, forest basis, Sokoke pipit, Retz's and chestnut-fronted helmet shrike and the amani sunbird. Additionally, from June to October four species which are very rare in East Africa can be seen, these being the: African Pitta, the Scaly Babbler, the Spotted Ground Thrush, and Clarke's weaver.
Desert and semi-desert
The desert around Lake Turkana and the vast area to the east, including the Dida Galgalla, is the habitat of some extremely locally distributed birds. Sand desert, rock desert and lava fields are found, with some grass cover occurring after rains. Acacia grow in scattered clumps or strips, particularly along the numerous dry-river beds. Larger areas of semi-desert scrubland border the true deserts wherever slightly higher rainfall occurs. Birds found include: swallow-tailed kite, fox kestrel, Heuglin's bustard cream-colored courser, Lichtenstein's sandgrouse, Abyssinian roller, masked and crested lark, William's bush lark, brown necked raven, Somali fiscal, white-crowned starling, shining sunbird, and Somali sparrow.
Central African rain forest
This is the easternmost extension of the vast rain forest which covers much of Zaire and Uganda. Today Kakamega is a "forest island ", which is excellent for bird-watching and in which many species not found elsewhere in Kenya are resident. Grey parrot, great blue turaco, blue-headed bee-eater, black and white casqued hornbill, yellow-spotted barbet, hairy-breasted barbet, brown-eared and yellow-crested woodpeckers, African broadbill, many species of illadopsis and greenbuls, southern hyliota, Jameson's chestnut and yellow-bellied wattle-eyes, pink-footed puffback, red-headed bluebill, and oriole finch.
Special thanks to the Kenya Association of Tour Operators for helping GORP develop Kenya parks information.
Details mentioned in this article were accurate at the time of publication