This wilderness was first designated in 1939, and was expanded to its present size in 1984. It now contains approximately 160,200 acres. There is a well-developed trail system, and the western end of the wilderness receives heavy use during the cooler times of the year.
The area is starkly beautiful and often rugged, but can be inhospitable to those not equipped to meet nature on her own terms. Searing heat and a shortage of water are typical conditions in the summer. Bitter cold, torrential rains, and even snowstorms are not uncommon in the winter. To those hardy enough to meet the challenges, this wilderness offers scenic beauty, and a chance to study the many plants and animals indigenous to the area.
Location: Mazatlal mountain range of Arizona
Size and Elevation: 160,200 acres, 2,000 feet to 6,265 feet
Ecosystem: Desert scrub and chaparral.
Features: Rolling country surrounded by vertical terrain; home to nationally known"Weaver's Needle," a 4553 feet high pinnacle.
Activities: Hiking, Horseback Riding
Before you hit the trails, you may want to learn more about the topography, vegetation, geology, climate, wildlife, livestock regulations, water, or natural fire management. Still not satisified? Check out more sources for information and other Tonto wilderness trails.
There is a network of some 180 miles of "system" trails serving the Superstition Wilderness and contiguous areas. Their condition varies from excellent to poor. Signs are installed at trail junctions, but unfortunately they are often damaged or stolen. There are also a number of miles of "unmaintained trails" shown on the map which may be anything from an abandoned cat-road to a path beaten out by humans and/or cattle. Some trails are hazardous to horses. All trails are closed to bikes of any type. Maximum group size is 15 persons.
Hieroglyphic Trail 1.1 miles to Indian petroglyphs.
Woodbury Trail 2.0 miles of old mining road.
Fire Line Trail 3.6 miles. Damaged and steep.
Bull Pass Trail 1.6 mile connecting trail.
Terrapin Trail 2.9 miles. Interesting.
Bluff Spring Trail 3.4 miles. Popular.
Second Water Trail 3.3 miles through Garden Valley.
Whiskey Trail 2.1 miles into LaBarge Canyon.
Cavalry Trail 3.2 mile connecting trail.
Black Mesa Trail 3miles. Good views.
Campaign Trail 2.2miles. Scenic and little-used.
Paradise Trail 2.5 miles through little-known area.
Plow Saddle Trail 0.4 mile connecting trail.
Peralta Trail 6.2 miles. One of the most heavily used in the Arizona.
Boulder Canyon Trail 7.3 miles. Rough but interesting.
Peter's Trail 7 miles. Excellent vistas.
Coffee Flat Trail 7.6 miles linking western & central parts of wilderness.
Rogers Canyon Trail 4.5 miles. Scenic, with lots of creek crossings.
Hoolie Bacon Trail 4 miles. May be difficult to follow (cool!)
Frog Tanks Trail 6.8 miles. Very scenic, and little used.
Reavis Gap Trail 4.7 miles. Scenic but rocky.
Tule Canyon Trail 4.5 miles. Steep but rocky.
Rock Creek Trail 4.8 miles. Rough.
Haunted Canyon Trail 7.8 miles. Isn't the name enough?
Bull Basin Trail 4.0 mile climb to unknown basin.
Spencer Spring Trail 4.6 miles parallel to Spencer Canyon.
Cuff Button Trail 6.0 miles. Easy to follow and little visited.
Dutchman's Trail 18.2 miles. Meandering.
JF Trail 10.2 main north-south trail.
Red Tanks Trail 8.9 miles. Rough and hard to follow.
Reavis Trail 15.3 miles. Partially on old roadway.
Two Bar Ridge Trail 8.3 miles through least visited part of wilderness.
West Pinto Trail 9 miles on west fork of Pinto Creek.
Pinto Peak Trail 8.5 miles. Isolated.
101 - Hieroglyphic Trail
1.1 miles in length. An easy hike up to an area with Indian petroglyphics. Trail begins at the Forest boundary. Access to this point is across State Trust land and private land. Respect private property rights.
114 - Woodbury Trail
2.0 miles in length. The east portion is an old mining road. The west portion provides access to Fraser Canyon and the Coffee Flat Trail 108.
Elevation: between 3,120 feet and 3,850 feet.
Termini: Trail 108 and Road 172A.
118 - Fire Line Trail
3.6 miles in length. This trail was impacted by bulldozers fighting the Iron Burn of 1966. Sections of this trail have serious erosion damage and the eastern section is very steep. It is Not recommended for horses.
Elevation: between 4,400 feet and 5,480 feet.
Termini: Trail 109 and Trail 213.
129 - Bull Pass Trail
1.6 miles in length. A steep, eroded trail that provides a route between Boulder Basin and LaBarge Canyon.
Elevation: between 2,280 feet and 2,750 feet.
Termini: Trail 104 and Trail 104 again.
234 - Terrapin Trail
2.9 miles in length. An interesting trail on the east side of Weaver's Needle. Portions are steep, eroded and difficult to follow.
Elevation: between 2610 feet and 3,410 feet.
Termini: Trail 235 and Trail 104.
235 - Bluff Spring Trail
3.4 miles in length. A heavily-used trail that is steep and rocky in spots; Not recommended for horses.
Elevation: between 2,410 feet and 3,210 feet.
Termini: Trail 104 a short distance from Peralta Trailhead and Trail 104 again near Bluff Spring.
236 - Second Water Trail
3.3 miles in length. A heavily-used trail that passes through Garden Valley. Lowest elevation 1,940 feet; highest elevation 2,420 feet.
Termini: Trail 104 near First Water Trailhead and Trail 103.
238 - Whiskey Spring:
2.1 miles in length. An easy trail which drops into LaBarge Canyon.
Elevation: between 1,940 feet and 2,420 feet.
Termini: Trail 104 and Trail 107.
239 - Cavalry Trail
3.2 miles in length. Crosses from LaBarge Canyon to Boulder Canyon. May be difficult to locate at creek crossings.
Elevation: between 2,080 feet and 2,450 feet.
Termini: Trail 104 and Trail 103.
241 - Black Mesa Trail
3.0 miles in length. Interesting views of Superstition Mountain. This is an easy trail except for the last section which is rocky and steep in spots.
Elevation: between 2,270 feet and 2,750 feet.
Termini: Trail 236 and Trail 104.
256 - Campaign Trail
2.2 miles in length. A scenic but little-used trail. Parallels Campaign Creek and is subject to flooding.
Elevation: between 2,400 feet and 4,040 feet.
Termini: Campaign Trailhead and Trail 213.
271 - Paradise Trail
2.5 miles in length. Passes through wild little-visited country in the southeast corner of the Wilderness.
Elevation: between 3,410 feet and 4,880 feet.
Termini: Road 287A just east of Miles Ranch and Trail 203.
287 - Plow Saddle Trail
0.4 miles in length. A short connecting trail in the north fork of Paradise Canyon.
Elevation: between 4,400 feet and 4,780 feet.
Termini: Trail 109 and Trail 112.
102 - Peralta Trail
6.2 miles in length. One of the more heavily-used trails in the state of Arizona. From Peralta Trailhead to Fremont Saddle, the trail is often down to bed-rock and provides difficult footing. Not recommended for horses.
Elevation: between 2,400 feet and 3,760 feet.
Termini: Peralta Trailhead (Road 77) and Trail 104.
103 - Boulder Canyon Trail
7.3 miles in length. A rough but interesting trail providing several scenic vistas. Part is located adjacent to Boulder Creek, and the stream crossings are subject to flooding. Not recommended for horses due to rocks.
Elevation: between 1,680 feet and 2,300 feet.
Termini: Canyon Lake Trailhead (Highway 88) and Trail 104.
105 - Peter's Trail
7.0 miles in length, with some excellent vistas. Parts are vague and a little difficult to follow.
Elevation: between 3,100 feet and 3,800 feet.
Termini: Tortilla Trailhead (Road 213) and Trail 104.
108 - Coffee Flat Trail
7.6 miles in length. An interesting trail linking the western and central parts of the Wilderness. Section in Randolph and Fraser Canyon is subject to heavy flood damage.
Elevation: between 2,350 feet and 3,120 feet.
Termini: Trail 104 and Trail 114 (near JF Headquarters).
110 - Rogers Canyon Trail
4.5 miles in length. A scenic trail with a lot of creek crossings. Portions are steep and can be difficult for horses. The segment in Rogers Canyon is subject to heavy flood damage.
Elevation: between 3,680 feet and 4,600 feet.
Termini: Trail 109 and Trail 106 at Tortilla Pass.
111 - Hoolie Bacon Trail
4.0 miles in length. A little-used trail named after an old-time local rancher. Some sections may be overgrown and difficult to follow.
Elevation: between 3,200 feet and 3,920 feet.
Termini: Trail 106 south of Tortilla Trailhead and Trail 107.
112 - Frog Tanks Trail
6.8 miles in length. A very scenic but little-used trail. Eastern section is old roadway; southern section is difficult (with one very steep part), and is Not recommended for horses. Section in Rogers Canyon is subject to heavy flood damage.
Elevation: between 3,300 feet and 4,820 feet.
Termini: Trail 109 and Trail 110.
117 - Reavis Gap Trail
4.7 miles in length. An interesting but rocky trail (with good views). Section east of Reavis Gap is very steep.
Elevation: between 3,280 feet and 5,250 feet.
Termini: Trail 256 (near Campaign Trailhead) and Trail 109.
122 - Tule Canyon Trail
4.5 miles in length. This trail provides access into the northeastern portion of the Wilderness. Much of the trail is steep and rocky, but views are excellent.
Elevation: between 2,800 feet and 4,800 feet.
Termini: Tule Trailhead (Road 449) and Trail 119.
195 - Rock Creek Trail
4.8 miles in length. A rough trail that follows Rock Creek through the southeast corner of the Wilderness. Subject to flood damage from Rock Creek.
Elevation: between 3,440 feet and 4,600 feet.
Termini: 212 near Miles Ranch Trailhead, Road 650.
203 - Haunted Canyon Trail
7.8 miles in length. Passes through wild little- visited country. Northern portion is in fair shape, but eastern end is difficult to follow. East of the Tony Ranch is an area Not recommended for horses.
Elevation: between 3,200 feet and 4,900 feet.
Termini: Road 287A southeast of Miles Ranch and Road 287.
270 - Bull Basin Trail
4.0 miles in length. Climbs to a little-visited but interesting basin.
Elevation: between 3,560 feet and 5,100 feet.
Termini: Trail 195 and Trail 203.
275 - Spencer Spring Trail
4.6 miles in length. Parallels Spencer Spring Canyon and is subject to flooding. Parts are difficult to locate and steep.
Elevation: between 3,660 feet and 5,000 feet.
Termini: Trail 212 and Road 650.
276 - Cuff Button Trail
6.0 miles in length. A easy-to-follow trail that is rarely visited. South section is very steep and may be overgrown.
Elevation: between 3,680 feet and 4,600 feet.
Termini: Trail 305 and Trail 212.
104 - Dutchman's Trail
18.2 miles in length. A long trail that meanders through the Wilderness, intersecting many other trails. Generally in good condition, but parts are heavily used. Lowest elevation 2,280 feet; highest elevation 3,250 feet.
Termini: Peralta Trailhead (Road 77) and First Water Trailhead (Road 78).
106 - JF Trail
10.2 miles in length. A main north-south trail named after Jack Fraser -pioneer cattleman in this area.
Elevation: between 3,250 feet and 4,560 feet.
Termini: Woodbury Trailhead (Road 172) and Tortilla Trailhead (Road 213).
107 - Red Tanks Trail
8.9 miles in length. Portions are rough and difficult to follow. The section through the upper LaBarge Box is steep and narrow, and is definitely Not recommended for horses.
Elevation: between 2,600 feet and 3,680 feet.
Termini: Trail 108 and Trail 104.
109 - Reavis Ranch:
15.3 miles in length. The northern 2/3rds of this trail is the old roadway to a former homestead. Southern section crosses the Iron Burn of 1966 (partially reburned in 1984).
Elevation: between 3,620 feet and 5,360 feet. .
Termini: Reavis Trailhead (Road 212) and Rogers Trough Trailhead (Road 172A).
119 - Two Bar Ridge Trail
8.3 miles in length. A scenic trail in one of the least visited parts of the Wilderness. Parts are rocky, overgrown and/or difficult to follow.
Elevation: between 4,200 feet and 4,900 feet.
Termini: Road 83 near Pinyon Mountain and Trail 117.
212 - West Pinto Trail
9.0 miles in length. A scenic trail mostly located in the west fork of Pinto Creek. Steep grades on portions near Iron Mountain. This east section is in the canyon bottom which is subject to flooding and may be difficult to follow.
Elevation: between 3,440 feet and 5,500 feet.
Termini: Miles Ranch Trailhead (Road 287A) and Trail 109 near Rogers Trough Trailhead.
213 - Pinto Peak Trail
8.5 miles in length. A little-used trail that traverses an isolated area in the east end of the Wilderness.
Elevation: between 3,680 feet and 5,320 feet.
Termini: Trail 212 and Road 306.
Directions to Trailheads
Not uncommonly, one of the more challenging parts of a back-country trip is attempting to find the trailhead itself. To assist you in reaching the jumping-off place, we have developed the following specific directions on how to reach various trailheads. Be sure to secure your vehicle and do not leave valuables in it while you are gone.
With large numbers of visitors entering each day during the peak visitation periods, the solitude of the wilderness is often lost. The following graph will give you some idea of the popularity of the various trailheads and will assist in selecting a hiking area where you may avoid the crowds.
Directions to trailheads
Peralta - Get to the Prealta, Dutchman's & Bluff Spring trails.
First Water - Catch the Dutchman's Trail and Second Water Trail.
Canyon Lake - Leads to the Boulder Trail.
Tortilla - Find the Peter's Trail, JF Trail and Hoolie Bacon Trail.
Reavis - Reavis Ranch Trail.
Tule - Tule Canyon Trail.
Campaign - You can get the Reavis Gap and the Campaign Trails from here.
Miles - You can start on either theWest Pinto Trail or the Rock Creek Trail here.
Woodbury - JF Trail and Woodbury Trail start here.
Rogers Trough - Reavis Ranch Trail, West Pinto Trail and the Roger's Canyon Trail can all be found here.
Drive east on US Highway 60 (approximately 8.5 miles past Apache Junction) to the Peralta Road 77 turnoff. The Trailhead is about 8 miles north on this road.
Note: Horse-trailer parking is on the left just inside the Forest boundary 0.1 miles before reaching the main trailhead.
Trails Accessed: Peralta Trail #102; Dutchman's Trail #104; Bluff Spring Trail #235.
Drive east on US Highway 60 towards Apache Junction. At Exit 196, drive north one mile on Idaho Road to State Highway 88. Turn right on Highway 88; drive approximately 3.5 miles north to Road 78 (near Mile Marker 200). Turn right and follow this road approximately 3 miles.
Note: Horse-trailer parking is on the left 0.5 miles before reaching the main trailhead.
Trails Accessed: Dutchman's Trail #104 and Second Water Trail #236.
Follow directions to First Water Trailhead, but remain on Highway 88 for approximately 12 more miles to the Canyon Lake Marina. Their parking lot may be utilized, with the trail access located on the south side of the highway.
Trails Accessed: Boulder Trail #103.
Follow directions to First Water Trailhead, but remain on Highway 88 for approximately 18.5 more miles to the Tortilla Road 213 turn-off. Parking is available here. If you have a 4WD, you may follow this road approximately 2 miles to a dead-end.
Trails Accessed: Peter's Trail #105; JF Trail #106; Hoolie Bacon Trail #111.
Follow directions to First Water Trailhead, but remain on Highway 88 for approximately 24.5 more miles to the Reavis Road 212 turn-off. Turn right and follow this road 3 miles to the trailhead.
Note: High clearance vehicles are sometimes needed for these last 3 miles. Not recommended for horse trailers.
Trails Accessed: Reavis Ranch Trail #109.
From the junction of Highway 88 and U.S. Highway 60 near Globe, drive north on Highway 88 approximately 21.2 miles to the Cross P Ranch Road 449 turn-off. Turn left and follow this road approximately 2 miles to a fork in the road; turn to the right and follow this road approximately .75 mile to the Tule Trailhead.
Trails Accessed: Tule Canyon Trail #122.
4WD vehicles required. From the junction of Highway 88 and U.S. 60, drive north on Highway 88 for approximately 21.2 miles to the Cross P Ranch Road 449 turn-off. Turn left and follow this road approximately 2 miles, turn left onto Road 449A and drive approximately 8 miles to the Trailhead.
Trails Accessed: Reavis Gap Trail #117; Campaign Trail #256.
High-clearance vehicles needed. Drive northeast from Superior on U.S. Highway 60 approximately 4 miles past"Top-of-the-World." Turn left on the paved Pinto Valley Mine Road 287 (just east of the Pinto Creek Bridge). This road is through a mining area and is often confusing. Follow this road approximately 6.5 miles to the Miles Ranch Road 287A turn-off. Turn left on this road for approximately 5.6 miles to the trailhead.
Trails Accessed: West Pinto Trail #212; Rock Creek Trail #195.
High-clearance vehicles needed. Drive east from Florence Junction on U.S. Highway 60 approximately 2 miles to the Queen Valley Road turn-off. Turn left and follow this paved road approximately 2 miles to where the Hewitt Station Road 357 (gravel) branches off to the right. Follow this road for approximately 3 miles to the JF Road 172 turn-off; turn left and follow this road approximately 9.3 miles to a road turning right. The trailhead is a short distance down this road.
Note: Queen Creek can close these roads; drive with care.
Trails Accessed: JF Trail #106 and Woodbury Trail #114.
4 WD vehicles required. Drive east from Florence Junction on U.S. Highway 60 approximately 2 miles to the Queen Valley Road turn-off. Turn left and follow this paved road for approximately 2 miles to where the Hewitt Station Road 357 branches off to the right (and turns to gravel). Follow this road for 3 miles to the JF Road 172 turn-off, turn left and follow this road 8 miles to the junction with the Roger Trough Road 172A. Bear right and follow this very rough road approximately 3 miles to the trailhead.
Note: Queen Creek sometimes closes these roads; drive with care.Trails Accessed: Reavis Ranch Trail #109; West Pinto Trail #212; Roger's Canyon Trail #110.
This area ranges in elevation from approximately 2,000 feet along its western boundary, to 6,265 feet at Mound Mountain. In the western portion, rolling country is surrounded by very steep, often vertical terrain. In the central and eastern portion of the wilderness, the terrain is less radical. A great variety of slopes and conditions can be found, and travel is often restricted to established trails and travel ways.
One nationally-known topographic feature is"Weaver's Needle," a weathered volcanic plug that rises to an altitude of 4,553 feet. The Superstition Mountain itself is a well-known feature that is clearly visible from the City of Apache Junction, where it is regularly photographed and painted.
Much of the western portion of the Wilderness lies within the Sonoran Desert Scrub vegetative type. Higher, less harsh conditions prevail and good stands of semi-desert grasses and shrubs are found. Higher still the Chaparral type is found. These brush stands cover hundreds of acres and are often quite dense. Unexpectedly, several pockets of ponderosa pine are found at the highest elevations.
The geological situation within these mountains is quite complex, and can only be touched upon there.
During the tertiary period, there was much disturbance and turbulence on the earth's crust due to the active flow of lava from many volcanoes. It was during this period that the Superstitions were formed. The altered lava flows, which are mostly dacite tuff and agglomerate, were deposited on deeply eroded Pre-Cambrian granite. Some pinal schist that is older than the Pre-Cambrian granite can be found. The Superstition Range is composed of heavily weathered tuff, ash, and lavas usually exposed at higher elevations. This gives rise to a thin, fine-textured, easily eroded soil.
Geologically, this area has a low potential for mineralization; despite this, it has been gone over hundreds of times by people sure they are on the trail of"a lost mine of fabulous wealth!"
At the lower elevations, the climate can be a challenging adversary during the summer months when temperatures may reach over 115 degrees F. in the shade (with very little shade available). Compounding the problem is a general lack of potable water.
On the other hand, the climate during the fall and spring can be quite inviting and pleasant. At higher elevations, cooler temperatures prevail and snow is not uncommon.
You should be aware that intense rainstorms can occur at any elevation, and flash flooding can be expected and must be prepared for.
The weather graphs below are for general information purposes. The average temperatures may be extrapolated to other elevations by adding or subtracting a general change of 3.5 F. per 1,000 feet of elevation gain/loss.
Only remnants of the wild lands that witnessed the early growth of Arizona can still be found. Some of these untamed lands have been set aside for the people of this country to use and enjoy as National Forests (first called Forest Reserves). This particular area was first established as a Forest Reserve in 1908.
As the uses of National Forests grew and intensified, there was again concern that selected small areas should be preserved in a natural condition, before no such areas remained. The Forest Service and concerned citizens, under the leadership of Aldo Leopold, established such a classification system in the early 1920's. This area was established as the Superstition Primitive Area by the Chief of the Forest Service in February 1939. It was upgraded to a wilderness classification in April 1940.
Later, the United States Congress became aware of and interested in the concepts of wilderness preservation pioneered by the Forest Service. After considerable debate, a bill was passed, and on September 3, 1964, the President signed it into law, creating the National Wilderness Preservation System. The Superstition Wilderness was one of the areas identified as a part of the system at that time, thereby assuring that a small but important part of our exceptional state would remain basically unchanged except by the forces of nature. On August 28, 1984, the Arizona Wilderness Act added some 35,000 acres to that originally designated, giving the Superstition Wilderness its present size and shape.
Hundreds of years before this happened, Native Americans were making their homes adjacent to and even within this area. The earliest known such use was by hunting and gathering groups making forays from nearby river valleys in 700 or 800 A.D. The area was later colonized by agricultural villagers known today as Hohokam. After about 1200 A.D., new forms of architecture and culture were adopted by these groups; this"new" cultural tradition is usually called Salado by archeologists.
Between 1200 and 1400 A.D. the Salado occupied a number of areas within this Wilderness. The broken terrain and other related factors kept most of their villages and the few cliff dwellings quite small. There has recently been speculation that one of their hill forts may have functioned as a calendric observatory, however, much remains to be learned about all aspects of this culture.
By 1400 A.D., various economical and political stresses caused the downfall of prehistoric civilizations throughout most of Arizona. For the next century or more, the Wilderness became what the early Spanish explorers called a "despoblado" or depopulated area. The Pima Indians of the Salt-Gila Basin did, however, continue to hunt and visit the area. After about 1500 A.D., the south-eastern Yavapai occupied this area. From that time until the arrival of the Americans in the middle 1800's, these mountains (call Wikichitauwa by its inhabitants) were almost exclusively Yavapai territory. Although frequent references to the Apaches in the Superstitions are heard, they actually made little use of this area. Much of the confusion probably resulted from the tendency of most Anglos in the Southwest to label all Indians "apache."
The first Europeans to have visited this area were the Spanish exploration parties who passed within a few miles of it in 1539 and 1540 enroute to Zuni. After Mexico achieved its independence from Spain in 1821, this entire area was essentially abandoned by Europeans except for occasional military patrols. Americans began filtering into the area after it became U.S. territory after the end of the Mexican-American War in 1848.
The 1870's and 1880's were boom times for this part of central Arizona, with substantial mining activity around the edge of the Superstition volcanic field. Despite legends of lost gold mines and buried treasures, however, no mines were ever developed within the Superstitions themselves.
The most famous tales revolve around mines (developed by the Peralta family of Sonora, Mexico), that are said to have been "rediscovered" by a German itinerant mine laborer known as Jacob Waltz. Several books deal with this and associated legends.
Several ranches were established in and around the Superstitions; they supplied beef to the military and to the mining towns of Silver King and Pinal. Old timers agree that the range was fully stocked by about 1890. Issuing grazing permits and control of livestock numbers were begun by the Forest Service when this area became a "Forest Reserve" in 1908. Two parcels of land were homesteaded: The "Miles Ranch" in the southeast corner of the Wilderness which was patented in 1921, and the "Reavis Ranch" which was patented in 1917 and subsequently purchased by the U.S. Government in 1966. The "Reavis Ranch" is named after a man dubbed by local newspapers "Hermit of the Superstitions": Elisha M. Reavis who lived in this secluded valley in the late 1800's.
As you visit this wilderness, you may come across evidence of these long-gone times. We invite you to enjoy this aspect of your past, but remind you that all artifacts are protected by Federal law, and excavation or removal is strictly prohibited.
For those interested in the history of the area within the Superstition Wilderness, there are a few reference books, but much remains to be learned. Some references for further study are included in a later section.
Deserts. by James MacMahon (Audubon Nature Guide, Alfred A. Knopf Inc., 1985).
Horse Packing in Pictures. by Francis W. Davis (Charles Scribner's Sons, 1975, New York, N.Y. #0-684 14259-7)
Desert Hiking. by Dave Ganci (Wilderness Press, 1985, Berkeley, CA)
Read an excerpt from the book.
Voice Desert. by Joseph Wood Krutch (William Morrow & Co., 1955, New York, NY)
Flowers of the Southwestern Deserts. (9th edition) by Natt N. Dodge and J.R. Janish (Southwest Monument Assoc., Globe, AZ, 1976)
Woody Plants of the Southwest. by Samuel H. Lamb (Sunstone Press, Santa Fe, NM, 1977
Hiker's Guide to the Superstition Wilderness. by J. Carlson & E. Stewart (Clear Creek Publishers, Tempe, AZ., 1995)
Tales of the Superstitions. by Robert Blair (Arizona Historical Foundations, Tempe, AZ, 1975)
The Story of the Superstition Mountain and the Lost Dutchman's Mine. by Robert J. Allen (Pocketbooks, Inc., #80493)
Details mentioned in this article were accurate at the time of publication